Light chasing robot part 2 (of 2)

The first version worked, but oscillated a lot in its motion. If you haven’t read it yet, I recommend reading it first otherwise this post won’t make as much sense. And if you have, it might be worth a re-read, since it took me nearly two years to post the followup.

The reason for the oscillation is that it has essentially very high feedback. If it’s very slightly off to one side, then the opposite motor comes on full, because the direction sensor divider goes into a simple comparator. Also, it turns out (I found this about a year later–yes I am a bit lazy about writing blog posts) the response of the LDRs is really slow, measurable over the timescale of a second, so the robot will swing round a significant amount before the resistive divider starts to respond. Either way making the response have a much lower gain will help.

I can reduce the gain by making the motor come on at a reduced speed in proportion to the ratio between the two LDRs.

The circuit is a little more complex than the previous one. It also falls into the category of “should have used a microcontroller” since then the upgrade would just be software and a lot more flexible. Essentially I have used a CMOS 555 in equal duty cycle mode and I’m using the capacitor voltage to get a sawtooth wave. That’s thresholded¬† by the comparator (opamp) to make a PWM signal. I could have also used the other amplifier in the dual opamp chip to do the same job. That would have been neater in hindsight.

Snapchat-1093110546

Simple PWM circuit

 

The result is really pretty good! See:

 

Er… take 2!

That works well, and is a good validation of the directional light sensors (the original point of this project).